Author Archives: Mehwish Noreen

Apartment house

Apartment house, also called apartment block, or block of flats, building containing more than one dwelling unit, most of which are designed for domestic use, but sometimes including shops and other nonresidential features.

Apartment buildings have existed for centuries. In the great cities of the Roman Empire, because of urban congestion, the individual house, or domus, had given way in early imperial times to the communal dwelling, or insula (q.v.), except for the residences of the very wealthy. Four stories were common, and six-, seven-, or eight-story buildings were occasionally constructed. Another type of apartment existed in Europe in the Middle Ages, consisting of a great house or mansion, part of which was subdivided into smaller sets of rooms in order to house the servants and other retainers of an important person. In contrast to these “apartments,” which were simply personal suites within great houses, the apartment house as it is known today first appeared in Paris and other large European cities in the 18th century, when tall blocks of flats for middle-class tenants began appearing. In the typical Parisian apartment building, the size of the apartments (and the financial means of the tenants) decreased with each successive story in a four- or five-story building.

By the mid-19th century, large numbers of inexpensive apartment houses were under construction to house swelling numbers of industrial laborers in cities and towns across Europe and in the United States. These buildings were often incredibly shabby, poorly designed, unsanitary, and cramped. The typical New York City apartment, or tenement, a type first constructed in the 1830’s, consisted of apartments popularly known as railroad flats because the narrow rooms were arranged end-to-end in a row like boxcars. Indeed, few low-cost apartment buildings erected in Europe or America before 1918 were designed for either comfort or style. In many European cities, however, particularly in Paris and Vienna, the second half of the 19th century witnessed great progress in the design of apartments for the upper-middle class and the rich.

The modern large apartment building emerged in the early 20th century with the incorporation of elevators, central heating, and other conveniences that could be shared in common by a building’s tenants. Apartments for the well-to-do began to offer other amenities such as leisure facilities, delivery and laundry services, and communal dining rooms and gardens. The multistory apartment house continued to grow in importance as crowding and rising land values in cities made one-family homes less and less practicable in parts of many cities. Much government-subsidized, or public, housing has taken the form of apartment buildings, particularly for the urban elderly and working classes or those living in poverty. Apartment-block towers also were erected in large numbers in the Soviet Union and other countries where housing construction was the responsibility of the state.

Since World War II the demand for apartment housing has continued to grow as a result of continued urbanization. The mid- or high-rise apartment complex has become a fixture of the skylines of most of the world’s cities, and the two- or three-story “walk-up” apartment also remains popular in somewhat less built-up urban areas.

The most common form of occupancy of apartment houses has been on a rental basis. However, multiple ownership of units on a single site has become much more common in the 20th century. Such ownership can take the form of cooperatives or condominiums. In a cooperative, all the occupants of a building own the structure in common; cooperative housing is much more common in parts of Europe than it is in the United States. A condominium denotes the individual ownership of one dwelling unit in an apartment house or other multi dwelling building. The increasing popularity of condominiums in the United States and elsewhere is based largely on the fact that, unlike members of a cooperative, condominium owners are not financially interdependent and can mortgage their property.

 


7 tips to add more fiber to your diet

Adding fiber to your diet does not mean you have to give up your favorite foods or change your lifestyle . Just follow these easy tips :

  1. Eat fresh fruits

To increase your fiber intake, eat more fruits (fresh) . The concept of “fresh” fruits because they contain the greatest amount of fiber.Do not forget to eat the fruit peel  (example: for apples or pears): they also contain large amounts of fiber!

  1. Eat vegetables (preferably raw)

In addition to their many health benefits , vegetables have the advantage of containing fewer calories but also a  lot of fiber and nutrients . So be sure to incorporate them into all your meals!Favor them as raw as possible because once cooked, vegetables lose up to half of their fiber!

  1. Vary fiber sources

There are two types of fiber: soluble fiber (which increases satiety ) and insoluble fiber (which facilitates transit and prevents constipation) . In order to benefit from these two types of benefits, be sure to incorporate both types of fiber into your diet.For example, beans, nuts, rice or carrots are sources of soluble fiber, while whole grains or apples, for example, are mainly sources of insoluble fiber. Some foods even contain both types!

  1. Start your day with a bomb of fibers!

You know how important breakfast is to health : it will contain the “fuel” to run our organization. Start the day with a high fiber breakfast.

Opt for high-fiber cereals  :  The latter  contains more than 15 grams per serving! The bran is also an interesting source: this is also the most fiber rich food.

  1. Go for whole grains

Prefer whole grain cereals “simple” (example: wheat) that are low in fiber. So:
– instead of eating a baguette, take whole bread;
– instead of buying classic pasta, opt for wholemeal pasta;
– instead of eating rice, eat whole rice instead.

  1. Use whole wheat in your recipes

Replace half of the whitened flour with whole wheat flour in your recipes and preparations .

  1. Add fiber to your salads and yogurt

Another trick to refuel, add dried fruits, nuts or seeds to cereal salads or yogurt . These are, indeed, an important source of fiber!

Tips for healthy diet

 


Motel

Motel, also called Motor Lodge, Motor Court, Tourist Court, or Motor Inn, originally a hotel designed for persons travelling by automobile, with convenient parking space provided. Motels serve commercial and business travelers and persons attending conventions and meetings as well as vacationers and tourists. The automobile became the principal mode of travel by 1950 in the United States and by the 1960’s in Europe and Japan; and motels were built as near as possible to interstate highways, just as hotels had been built as near as possible to railroad stations. Most motels provide an informal atmosphere compared to hotels; often the guest transports his own luggage to and from his room. Most but not all motels have restaurant facilities and many have swimming pools; most rooms contain a television set.

Motels originated as a series of separate or attached roadside cabins, independently operated; but when professional management took over, their size increased, and the chain concept became popular. Franchising operations, in which an individual is allowed to go into business for himself under the widely advertised name of a chain of motels, thus realizing the benefits of chain operations with relatively modest investment, has achieved remarkable growth for several chains.

 


Hotel

Hotel, building that provides lodging, meals, and other services to the traveling public on a commercial basis. A motel performs the same functions as a hotel but in a format designed for travelers using automobiles.

Inns have existed since very ancient times to serve merchants and other travelers. In the Roman Empire hostelries called mansions were situated along the Roman road system to accommodate travelers on government or commercial business. The commercial revival of the European Middle Ages stimulated a widespread growth of inns and hostels. Many of these were operated by monastic brotherhoods in order to guarantee haven for travelers in dangerous regions; a famous example is the hostel in the Great St. Bernard Pass in the Swiss Alps, which was founded in the 10th century by St. Bernard of Montjoux and is still operated by the community of Augustinian monks. In 13th-century China Marco Polo found an extensive system of relay houses in existence to provide lodgings for travelers and way stations for the Mongol postal service.

Privately operated inns intended primarily for use by merchants were widespread in both Islamic and western European countries during the later Middle Ages. The rapid proliferation of stagecoach travel during the 18th century further stimulated the development of inns. But it was the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century that stimulated the most progress in inn keeping, especially in England, whose inns became a standard for the world on account of their cleanliness and comfort. Meanwhile, American innkeepers were setting a standard for size; by 1800 the inns of the United States were the largest in the world. The American trend toward large size continued into the 20th century and eventually was adopted by other countries.

The modern hotel was to a large extent the result of the railroad age; faster travel eliminated the need for the inns serving the old coach routes, and many of these were forced out of business as a result. On the other hand, many new and larger hotels were profitably built close to railroad stations. As travel for pleasure became increasingly popular during the 19th century, a new class of resort hotels was built in many countries. Along the French and Italian Riviera resort hotels were constructed to serve wealthy vacationers, who frequently came for the entire summer or winter season. Luxury hotels soon made their appearance in the cities; in 1889 the Savoy Hotel in London set a new standard with its own electricity and its host of special services for guests.

Trends hotel

Another landmark was the opening in Buffalo, New York, in 1908 of the Statler Hotel, whose owner, Ellsworth Milton Statler, introduced many innovations in service and conveniences for the benefit of the large and growing class of business travelers. From the Buffalo Statler grew the Statler Company, the first great chain operation in hotel keeping.

World War I was followed by a period of tremendous hotel construction, and hotels also increased in size; the Stevens Hotel (later the Conrad Hilton) in Chicago opened with 3,000 rooms and retained the title of the world’s largest until the late 1960’s, when the Hotel Russia opened in Moscow. After World War II many hotels were built at or near major airports.

The operation of hotel chains became a characteristic of modern hotel keeping, particularly in the decades after World War II. A chain operation, in which one company operates two or more hotels, permits increased efficiency in such areas as purchasing, sales, and reservations.

The main categories of hotels are transient, resort, and residential. Hotels are classed as “mainly transient” when at least 75 percent of their guests are not permanent residents. The guest in a typical transient hotel can expect a room with private bath, telephone, radio, and television, in addition to such customer services as laundry, valet, and cleaning and pressing. A larger establishment usually has a coffee shop, dining room, cocktail lounge or nightclub, and a gift shop or newsstand-tobacco counter.

The resort hotel is a luxury facility that is intended primarily for vacationers and is usually located near special attractions, such as beaches and seashores, scenic or historic areas, ski parks, or spas. Though some resorts operate on a seasonal basis, the majority now try to operate all year-round. The residential hotel is basically an apartment building offering maid service, a dining room, and room meal service. Residential hotels range from the luxurious to the moderately priced. Some resort hotels operate on the so-called American plan, in which the cost of meals is included in the charge for the room. Others operate on the European plan, in which the rate covers only the room and guests make their own arrangements for meals. Transient hotels generally operate on the European plan.

 


Resort hotel

Resort hotel

Island resort